Internationalisation of cultural and creative goods and services not only means the exportation of goods. While it is important in the process of going abroad, it also can be achieved through “foreign direct investment (relocation or outsourcing), technology transfers, participation in international value chains, and other forms of inter-SME cooperation” (Buckley and Casson, 1998). The main goal is the same regardless the method: to gain greater competitive advantage.
Cultural and creative sectors are comprised of all sectors whose activities are based on cultural values, or other artistic individuals or collective creative expressions and are defined in the legal bases of the Creative Europe Programme.
The 2015-18 Work Plan for Culture cites cultural and creative sectors, creative economy and innovation as one of its four main priorities for cooperation in cultural policy making. The New European Agenda for Culture and New Work Plan for Culture 2019-2022 underline the importance of cultural and creative sectors for innovation, job creation, cohesion and well-being of societies.
The EC has focussed on an ecosystem approach to supporting artists, cultural and creative professionals and European content. This policy agenda is complemented through a variety of actions and initiatives – such as the Creative Europe Programme – as well as funding from various Commission resources.
The European Union (EU) supports Cultural and Creative Sectors through:
- Advocacy, evidence on the economy of culture, visibility
- Regulatory environment for CCS (contribution to Intellectual Property rights revisions in the framework of the Digital Single Market Strategy)
- EU support programmes: Creative Europe, H2020/Horizon Europe, Cosme (including Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs), EU Regional Policies via the different funds (ERDF, ESF, Investment Fund, etc.
- EU cultural policy to enhance peer learning and exchange of best practice (through the Work Plan for Culture, the Open Method of Coordination (OMC), Member States expert groups, civil society dialogues, other peer learning activities with creative hubs, cities, regions…)
As a priority under the last EU Work Plan for Culture, public policies and entrepreneurship and innovation potential of cultural and creative sectors was one of the issues examined more in detail by Member States experts, stakeholders, and the Commission services:
- a detailed Overview of all EU policies and studies related to entrepreneurship and innovation in cultural and creative sectors
- OMC Report (2018) on "The role of public policies in developing entrepreneurial and innovation potential of the cultural and creative sectors"
- Structured dialogue ("Voices of Culture") report by CCS stakeholders on entrepreneurship and innovation potential and CCS
Creative hubs, peer learning and similar
As a priority under the last EU Work Plan for Culture, public policies toward entrepreneurship and innovation potential of CCS was one of the issues examined in greater detail by Member States experts, stakeholders, and the Commission services:
- EU network of creative hubs
- Cultural and Creative Spaces and Cities
- Pilot project "FLIP (Finance, Learning, Innovation and Patenting) for CCIs"
- OMC Report (2018) on "Participatory governance of cultural heritage":
- The network of young creative entrepreneurs
- Culture for cities and regions (2015-2017)
Studies and data
In order to help cultural and creative sectors with evidence-based policy-making, the European Commission and Eurostat are working on cultural statistics and other relevant studies, some of which can be found under the following links:
- EU Cultural statistics
- Guide to Eurostat culture statistics
- Study on creative value chains
- Crowdfunding for the CCS
- Study on competitiveness of CCIs for growth and jobs:
- The Culture and Creative City Monitor
- CCI-related studies under Horizon 2020
Financing for CCIs
Finding the right type of financing support for cultural and creative sectors/industries is a challenge… here are some interesting links to initiatives at EU level:
- OMC Report (2016) on Access to Finance "Towards more efficient financial ecosystems”
- The Cultural and Creative Sector Guarantee Facility
- EU Funding Portal
- An overview of different EU financing sources
- The STARTS initiative (Innovation at the nexus of Science, Technology, and the ARTS and the STARTS Residency programme
- Horizon 2020 (research and innovation) programmes "Eurostars", "Fiware Accelerator Programme
- EU Support for digital Start-ups
- "Creative Lenses: Business Models for Culture" (2015-2019) funded under the Creative Europe Programme
- Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs is also accessible for CCIs
- The Worth Partnership Project also includes design
- ECBN (European Creative Business Network)
- EU network of creative hubs
- The European incubation network(s) for creativity-driven innovation
- Pan-European network of Digital Innovation Hubs
- EU Urban Agenda
Relevant regional networks:
- RICC: Regional Initiative for Culture and Creativity
- ERRIN: European Regions Research and Innovation Network – Working Group on Design and Creativity
Other relevant links
- European Parliament Resolution on CCIs
- Modules for Master Degrees in Arts and Science
- Sectoral initiative - Music
- Responding to changing skills needs by promoting innovation in education
- Supporting the mobility of artists
- The Creative Europe - Cross-sectoral strand
- Coordinating with Member States to reform regulatory environments
- Developing policies and initiatives to promote market access for and investment in CCIs
It is also recommended to learn about Incoterms, “International Commercial Terms” that are a series of commercial terms defined by the ICC (the International Chamber of Commerce) and used in imports and exports around the world: they define the rights and duties of all legal entities involved in the transfer of goods.
We can divide the Incoterms 2020 into different groups according to the initial letter of the acronym, the terms belonging to the same group share similar characteristics. For example, Group E, Group F, Group C, Group D.
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